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A tough fire resistant outer bark and lack of low branches help the knobcone pine survive fire with minimal damage. Humans are allergic to practically every plant on the planet, and terraform by slash-and-burn agriculture and bulk dumping of fertilizer. These people reaped tremendous harvests of the Cloudy Planet's boundless fertility. It should be noted, though, that Fatah district candidates as a whole underperformed relative to their list. It makes sense to me that an incorrectly named font in that key would cause problems, but it is unfortunate that it can prevent the entire.

How to predict the near future

Eventually, they run into serious pollution problems, loss of usable mineral deposits, changing climate both natural through the equivalent of Milankovich cycles, and anthropogenic , and a biosphere that coevolves to exploit the colony, because that's just what life does think pesticide resistant bugs, coyotes, superweeds At that point, the colony starts to fall apart. Interstellar trade shifts away from it after all, whatever's causing them to collapse them might be contagious.

Ultimately the survivors hang on to become a truly resilient indigenous population in a backwater world--or all die horribly as their critical infrastructure fails.

Their fate doesn't matter to our interstellar civilization, because it has literally already moved on to new frontiers, boldly going where no man has gone before. So long as they can find new worlds to conquer, they can go on forever. Why planets and not, say, asteroids? The short answer is gravity, radiation shielding, atmosphere, and biosphere. We still haven't figured out how to complete a human life cycle in space, and it's not clear it's possible. We require gravity, and unless someone invents a usable gravity generator, we need planets to warp space for us.

Even if someone does invent a gravity generator, on a planet you get gravity as part of the price of entry. If that planet has an active core, you also get a magnetosphere, which helps a lot with radiation shielding, plus things like plate tectonics.

We don't have decent, light radiation shields either, so until people start building force fields that keep out radiation, a magnetosphere is essential. A nice, oxygen-rich atmosphere also does a lot to moderate the radiation experienced on the surface, and again, with a planet with a biosphere, you get this for free. And you can to a first approximation breathe the air.

And yes, an alien biosphere can be counted on to cause problems. However, life does a lot of useful things, one of which is concentrating elements into ore bodies something bacteria do with some elements.

A combination of plate tectonics and an active biosphere means that you've got possibilities for a lot of concentrated ore bodies, petrochemicals like oil, and useful biochemicals--all the stuff you need to build a starship. While asteroids have these elements, they don't have them so much in concentrated ore bodies, so you've got to spend a lot of energy refining asteroids into useful feedstocks and dealing with the slag.

The bottom line is that alien biospheres are dangerous, but so is living on an asteroid, and I suspect the former is the less dangerous option, at least for humans. So you've found a fine, middle-aged planet, and you want to settle it there's a little aside here about the evolution of planetary crusts that I won't go into here--ask in comments. Where do you site the first colony? My suggestion is to locate it on a mid-ocean, hotspot volcano, like Hawai'i, Iceland, or Tenerife. The advantages are that you're dealing with an isolated, fairly simple ecosystem, and if island species are sufficient to overwhelm your immune system and rot your brain or cover you in piles of dung , you wouldn't have survived the mainland either.

As the Polynesians and Guanche demonstrated, it's possible to terraform an island using neolithic technology, so you can probably establish an island colony with the contents of one or a few starships, even with 21st Century tech. Moreover, islands are quite fertile, both from the elements coughed up by the volcano and also from the excrement left behind by sea life hauling out on the island or using it as a rookery.

Yes, what I'm recommending will result in the extinction of many no-doubt fascinating, even cuddly, island species, but if you're planning to do that on a massive scale anyway it's called terraforming for a reason and you have to start small, then it makes sense to start on mid-ocean volcanoes and see if you can establish a beachhead there. If living on an idyllic, isolated volcanic island causes your children to die horribly, then it's likely that you're not going to be able to successfully colonize this world anyway.

To successfully colonize a planet, though, you can't stop at one island chain. Islands may be good for agriculture, but they're missing things like the rare earths lithium that you'll need for electronics and batteries. Mainland settlements are necessary for the long-term success of a colony.

At a minimum, there have to be mines and oil wells, extractive operations to feed back to the main colonies on the islands. At a maximum, the entire planet can be colonized and terraformed. But for a first colony, I'd suggest targeting a hotspot volcano in the middle of a big ocean. We know how to settle those on Earth. Yes, I know there's a lot of planetology I'm ignoring here, like the story of planetary crust evolution. If people are interested, we can discuss it in the comments.

Dwarf culture Red dwarf exoplanets, I mean. Can life even exist on a planet orbiting a red dwarf star? I have no clue, although reading the dueling model papers is fun. Here I'm assuming it's possible, but whether this is plausible is something to hash out in the comments. Anyway, assuming oxygenic biospheres can form on planets orbiting red dwarf stars, and assuming humans can live there The problem with red dwarf stars is they have the bad habit of emitting large blasts of x-rays and coronal mass ejections, so for humans, the best place for a long-term colony is either underground or behind a mountain.

Being in the shade of a volcano isn't a bad idea. That's the second issue. Red dwarfs are cool little stars, and that means that the habitable zone where water is liquid is far closer than Mercury is to our sun.

A year for a habitable dwarf exoplanet is on order of days to weeks. As a result, the planet almost certainly has no moon s and it is tidally locked to the star. Tidal lock means that the planet rotates one day in one year, so that one side of the planet always faces the red dwarf, while the other is in perpetual darkness.

Anyway, the star evaporates water and heats air, which together drive formation of huge storms under the sun, but which also move a lot of water and hot air around the rest of the planet, driving a planet-wide atmospheric circulation cell, so that hot air travels towards the back of the planet, while cold air moves to fill in the gap, and the whole thing reaches some sort of windy stable system.

There's probably no volcanic islands directly under the red dwarf the sea's too deep there , and you wouldn't want to live there anyway, with perpetual hurricanes. The better place to live is closer to the terminator between day and night, where the sea is shallower and there are perpetual shadows behind the volcanoes. Or you can dig in. Earthly crops, unless they're massively genetically engineered to have photosystems that don't need ultraviolet light, will have to be grown in greenhouses, but with the sun in the same place in the sky, even setting up massive solar farms is pretty trivial, assuming you don't simply posit a fusion planet to power it all.

As for human culture on a red dwarf planet, that's where it gets weird. To start with, it's underground or in the shade. Sunbathing is a risky sport at best, and you'd better be wearing a dosimeter when you're casting a shadow. Timekeeping is even weirder.

Humans have circadian rhythms as does most terrestrial life, so keep track of days, weeks, and so forth is useful in a red dwarf culture. However, there's no reason for everyone to stay on the same day-night cycle, because the sun never changes position. Why not organize the colony around shifts, say, three eight-hour shifts in a 24 hour notional day. It doesn't correspond to what's going on with the local sun, but it helps the colony be more productive and keeps everyone on time.

This is where dwarf culture comes into being. Since I like corny slang, I suspect that, in an FTL culture, "dwarf" will shift from meaning vertically challenged and refer to anyone who grew up on a red dwarf planet. After all, an underground culture where daylight is unending but which shift you work is culturally important is pretty alien to someone who grew up on Earth, with its days and nights, seasons, going outside, and not worrying about solar flares.

In terms of interstellar politics, dwarves from different colonies may find that they have more in common with each other than they do with people who grew up on swiftly spinning planets like Earth. Since there are a lot of red dwarf stars out there, factional splits between dwarf and "normal" colonies could have huge political implications for how interstellar civilization works. Working out the details is where the fun begins for the writer.

Habitable Planets fall mostly into two classes. These are almost exactly like Earth — more precisely the Garden of Eden, or at least coastal California. Summers are baskingly warm, winters briskly cool, and the rain falls only at night. Landforms have dramatic variety, a typical planetscape resembling San Francisco Bay, only with the Sierras in place of the Oakland hills. These Planets teem with native life forms that we can eat and tasty to boot; see FOOD , but none — either carnivores or microbes — who eat us.

Who wouldn't want to live on one, if you could? These nominally Habitable Planets pose greater challenges for interstellar real estate promoters. The entire Planet usually has only one climatic zone, and it isn't mediterranean. Desert Planets seem to be most common, followed by ice-age Planets, steaming jungle Planets, and howling windswept steppe Planets.

The local life is mostly inedible, but it can eat us with no problem, and does so whenever it can catch us. It is difficult to understand why Colonization happened on these Planets. Perhaps they produce something valuable in TRADE , but if so the Colonists never seem to benefit, since they are mostly poor. In the old days, interstellar colonization was pretty simple and straightforward once you had a starship handy.

Heinlein, naturally, provided the real estate pitch:. Nova Terra, to be sure, was the pick of the lot. In the same book Heinlein alludes to harsh colony worlds — and later on, an Eden planet turns out to have non- prelapsarian locals already in possession, who intend to stay that way. But given a sky full of stars and a ship to get you there, why settle for the also-rans?

Heinlein also supplied a host of secondary tropes, such as the utility of horses that can fuel themselves from a handy pasture and given a stallion and a mare manufacture their own replacements. Unfortunately, as commenter Ian M. Suppose a planet with complex life, and enough of it to have built up an oxygen-rich atmosphere. It may look like Paradise, or at any rate Earth. Convergent evolution might well produce para-forests and para-grasslands, just as dolphins have a similar configuration to fish.

But dophins aren't fish, and alien life almost certainly will not be like us. Hydrocarbon life anywhere will be built out of the same basic building blocks, but with differing architectural details — and our digestive keys will not fit its nutritional locks. The good news is that the local tigers and local germs won't find us tasty and nutritious. But by the same token we can't eat the local venison or berries, and chances are only slightly better that our cattle can graze on the grass.

Plants have a far less demanding diet, and might well grow nicely in any soil that has nitrogen fixed in it. In fact they might grow too well, at least the ones that don't rely on bees or other terrestrial creatures as their dating service. Terrestrial plants, devoid of natural enemies, might crowd the native stuff out of any remotely suitable environment — wrecking entire ecosystems.

But this too could go both ways. To local para-algae we could be walking Petri dishes: Our bodies' defenses, if any, are likely to take the form of allergic reactions, not terribly helpful to us.

In short, any garden worlds out there are probably not for us. Those valleys with forested slopes above babbling streams filled with flashing para-trout are the ultimate nature preserves, to be appreciated but not subdivided for housing tracts.

Yes, theoretically we might simply wipe out the native life, then recolonize with a terrestrial ecosystem including ourselves. I don't think you have to be a Jain to find something repulsive about this. Which leaves the option of terraforming. For every nature-park world we will probably find dozens that didn't quite make it. We do not yet know whether life arises wherever there is liquid water to be had — we may begin to find out on Mars and Europa.

But if a planet has oceans but no life it is a candidate for terraforming, and only the ecopoetic or gardening stage is required — no need to sling comets from the outer system to provide water, or hoover up 90 bars of CO2 out of the atmosphere. Worlds with limited 'primitive' life may even allow a sort of biological nonaggression pact, the native forms going quietly on in their own local ecosystems.

There are still ethical questions we're precluding or at least greatly altering their evolutionary prospects , but not like the ethics of sterilizing a rich, living world. In Lois McMaster Bujold's Vorkosigan books , the world Barrayar seems to have been a particularly bad choice in real estate. Humans are allergic to practically every plant on the planet, and terraform by slash-and-burn agriculture and bulk dumping of fertilizer.

It's one of the few SF settings I've seen that touch on the biochemical issues of colonization. If your planning horizon is short enough Say, because you're transplanting undesirables to a new world the prospect of a planetary triple toe loop probably doesn't bother you. On the other hand, any culture that practices terraforming obviously does think in the long term and I think the idea of transporting prisoners to other worlds is unlikely even with FTL.

Why dump the prisoners on Ceti Alpha V when it's cheaper to dump them on Antarctica? Using Earth as a baseline, the prime real estate would probably be any world that has not yet hit it's equivalent of the Devonian era. So long as complex life is confined largely to the seas, terraforming the land is remarkably straightforward. It's a lot of hard work, but it's not hard work that fights back and evolves to destroy your work. And the presence of marine ecosystems means you don't have to terraform the oceans Or only have to introduce species like salmon, eels, or tortoises, that return nutrients to the land from the ocean.

I did some calculations for terraforming ocean volumes comparable to the Earth's, and was quickly reminded that humans are just a thin biofilm confined to a narrow portion of the habitable world. Completely lifeless worlds are your next best bet. But you should probably check out the local neighborhood and find out why the place is lifeless In his novel Nemesis Isaac Asimov included a fictional life-signs scanner that worked by detecting complex repetitive electromagnetic events.

Something like that wouldn't spot anything without a rudimentary nervous system, but it was an interesting idea. Throw in spectrographic analysis, telescopic studies, and automated surveys, and any colonists should have a good idea of what they're getting into even if they are the first humans to set foot on the planet.

I find this to be a highly questionable assertion. Without even going into far afield things like amino acid chirality, most earth-born bacteria and virii do a poor job jumping across species. It can't recall the last time I caught a cold from a tree. But beyond that I think you vastly underestimate the sheer hostility of the environment that is the human body. While you may be right about our response being an allergic reaction, our bodies aren't the only factor.

Those foreign bacteria will be trying to compete with the fauna you already carry around with you. Fauna that has been selected for ruthless survival in that environment over uncountable generations. Think like this — a gang wants to move into the city to do their business. You are talking about how they would do against the cops, but completely ignoring the fact that Don Corleone is going to have some very pointed ideas about them moving in on his territory.

I never have learned the co-ordinates of Sanctuary, nor the name or catalogue number of the star it orbits — because what you don't know, you can't spill; the location is ultra-top-secret, known only to ships' captains, piloting officers, and such. So I don't want to know. With the possibility that Luna Base might be taken and Terra herself occupied, the Federation kept as much of its beef as possible at Sanctuary, so that a disaster back home would not necessarily mean capitulation.

Literally retarded, like a kid who takes ten years to learn to wave bye-bye and never does manage to master patty-cake. It is a planet as near like Earth as two planets can be, same age according to the planetologists and its star is the same age as the Sun and the same type, so say the astrophysicists.

It has plenty of flora and fauna, the same atmosphere as Earth, near enough, and much the same weather; it even has a good-sized moon and Earth's exceptional tides. With all these advantages it barely got away from the starting gate. You see, it's short on mutations; it does not enjoy Earth's high level of natural radiation. Its typical and most highly developed plant life is a very primitive giant fern; its top animal life is a proto-insect which hasn't even developed colonies.

I am not speaking of transplanted Terran flora and fauna — our stuff moves in and brushes the native stuff aside. With its evolutionary progress held down almost to zero by lack of radiation and a consequent most unhealthily low mutation rate, native life forms on Sanctuary just haven't had a decent chance to evolve and aren't fit to compete.

Their gene patterns remain fixed for a relatively long time; they aren't adaptable — like being forced to play the same bridge hand over and over again, for eons, with no hope of getting a better one. As long as they just competed with each other, this didn't matter too much — morons among morons, so to speak. But when types that had evolved on a planet enjoying high radiation and fierce competition were introduced, the native stuff was outclassed.

Now all the above is perfectly obvious from high school biology. Not transients like me, but the colonists who live there, many of whom were born there, and whose descendants will live there, even into the umpteenth generation — what about those descendants? It doesn't do a person any harm not to be radiated; in fact it's a bit safer — leukemia and some types of cancer are almost unknown there. Besides that, the economic situation is at present all in their favor; when they plant a field of Terran wheat, they don't even have to clear out the weeds.

Terran wheat displaces anything native. But the descendants of those colonists won't evolve. This chap told me that they could improve a little through mutation from other causes, from new blood added by immigration, and from natural selection among the gene patterns they already own — but that is all very minor compared with the evolutionary rate on Terra and on any usual planet.

Do they stay frozen at their present level while the rest of the human race moves on past them, until they are living fossils, as out of place as a pithecanthropus in a spaceship? Or will they worry about the fate of their descendants and dose themselves regularly with X-rays or maybe set off lots of dirty-type nuclear explosions each year to build up a fallout reservoir in their atmosphere?

Accepting, of course, the immediate dangers of radiation to themselves in order to provide a proper genetic heritage of mutation for the benefit of their descendants. This bloke predicted that they would not do anything. He claims that the human race is too individualistic, too self-centered, to worry that much about future generations.

He says that the genetic impoverishment of distant generations through lack of radiation is something most people are simply incapable of worrying about. And of course it is a far-distant threat; evolution works so slowly, even on Terra, that the development of a new species is a matter of many, many thousands of years. If one is dealing with near-future colonization of the non-shirtsleeve planets of the solar system using weak chemical rockets, the difficulties are overwhelming.

It is vastly easier to colonize hypothetical human-habitable garden worlds around other stars using handwaving faster than light starships because the author said so. The sad fact of the matter is that it is about a thousand times cheaper to colonize Antarctica than it is to colonize Mars.

Antarctica has plentiful water and breathable air, Mars does not. In comparison to Mars, Antarctica is a garden spot. Yet there is no Antarctican land-rush.

One would suspect that there is no Martian land-rush either, except among a few who find the concept to be romantic. I'll believe in people settling Mars at about the same time I see people setting the Gobi Desert. The Gobi Desert is about a thousand times as hospitable as Mars and five hundred times cheaper and easier to reach. Nobody ever writes "Gobi Desert Opera" because, well, it's just kind of plonkingly obvious that there's no good reason to go there and live.

It's ugly, it's inhospitable and there's no way to make it pay. Mars is just the same, really. We just romanticize it because it's so hard to reach. On the other hand, there might really be some way to make living in the Gobi Desert pay. And if that were the case, and you really had communities making a nice cheerful go of daily life on arid, freezing, barren rock and sand, then a cultural transfer to Mars might make a certain sense.

If there were a society with enough technical power to terraform Mars, they would certainly do it. On the other hand. So by the time they got there and started rebuilding the Martian atmosphere wholesale, they wouldn't look or act a whole lot like Hollywood extras. Any resemblance to — ah — real persons and places is quite coincidental.

After some years it finds that this is costing a lot more than it expected, and has given no tangible returns for the money spent. Two factions then arise on the mother world. One, the conservative group, wants to close the project down — to cut its losses and get out. But this sort of argument is no use with the taxpayers, and the conservatives are beginning to get the upper hand. I should have explained at the beginning that planet B has been attracting the finest brains of A, which is another reason why A is getting annoyed.

Still, the plan is put forward — and is promptly turned down by A. There is a protracted tug-of-war behind the scenes, but the home planet is adamant. They can force the issue out into the open, and appeal to the public on world A. The other choice is to carry on with the plan without informing Earth — I mean, planet A — and this is what they finally decided to do. He had a team of first-class scientists behind him, and they backed him up. So the plan went ahead; but no one knows yet if it will be successful.

As a general rule colonists like places with breathable atmospheres, so they don't immediately die upon stepping out of the transport spacecraft. Unfortunately, if there are no starships, the only naturally occurring place like that in the solar system is Terra. Everywhere else is a non-shirtsleeve environment, the colonists will have to build and maintain a large pressurized volume to live in. This might be a purpose-build operation that is part of a grand plan to colonize the place.

Or it might be unplanned, usually by some organization establishing some kind of base ; then as other bases and boomtowns spring up nearby, the entire establishment morphs into a colony. Functionally a colony on an airless world is a space habitat that is sited on the ground instead of floating in orbit.

Structurally they will be different. A ground based colony will have access to lots of local resources that a space colony will have to import. Because radiation from galactic cosmic rays GCR and solar proton storms is not healthy for children and other living things. It heinously expensive to ship radiation shielding to a space habitat under construction, but planet-based naturally-occurring lava tubes are practically free.

Planets with no atmospheres will need to build underground for radiation protection. On Terra people suffer about 0. Or pile lots of Martian dirt on top of the buildings. Titan got lucky, it actually has a denser atmosphere than Terra. Old illustrations of lunar colonies liked to depict them under transparent domes, because the artist did not know about the radiation hazard. Since all the living spaces have to be pressurized and otherwise equipped with life support, they will be limited and the colony will feel cramped.

Cubicles will be minuscule, and the connecting corridors will be narrow. Much the same as any underground building or rabbit burrow. Privacy will be very hard to come by. Terraforming is using planetary engineering to make a planet's environment more like a prime vacation spot, or a least one where an unprotected human being won't instantly die.

It generally takes hundreds to thousands of years for the process to be complete. It also requires access to incredibly large amounts of advanced technology, planetary-sized stocks of raw materials, and an energy budget comparable to all of Terra combined.

Fogg wrote the definitive book on the topic , sadly out of print. His web page has lots of terraforming information. Terraforming a world inhabited by sentient beings is considered to be attempted genocide , or at the least to be very rude. Extreme moralists go to the point of only allowing terraforming on planets that are totally lifeless. Examples include Sir Arthur C. And while the majority of these range in size from tiny rocks to planetesimals, there are also a handful of bodies that contain a significant percentage of the mass of the entire Asteroid Belt.

Of these, the dwarf planet Ceres is the largest, constituting of about a third of the mass of the belt and being the sixth-largest body in the inner Solar System by mass and volume. In addition to its size, Ceres is the only body in the Asteroid Belt that has achieved hydrostatic equilibrium — a state where an object becomes rounded by the force of its own gravity.

For this reason, the idea of colonizing Ceres someday has some appeal, as well as terraforming. Ceres also has the distinction of being the only dwarf planet located within the orbit of Neptune. This is especially interesting considering the fact that in terms of size and composition, Ceres is quite similar to several Trans-Neptunian Objects TNOs — such as Pluto , Eris , Haumea , Makemake , and several other TNOs that are considered to be potential candidates for dwarf planets status.

With this mass, Ceres comprises approximately a third of the estimated total mass of the Asteroid Belt between 2. The next largest objects are Vesta , Pallas and Hygiea, which have mean diameters of more than km and masses of 2. The mass of Ceres is large enough to give it a nearly spherical shape, which makes it unique amongst objects and minor planets in the Asteroid Belt. Ceres follows a slightly inclined and moderately eccentric orbit, ranging from 2.

It has an orbital period of 1, Earth days 4. Based on its size and density 2. If true, it is possible that this ocean could harbor microbial extraterrestrial life, similar to what has been proposed about Mars , Titan , Europa and Enceladus.

It has further been hypothesized that ejecta from Ceres could have sent microbes to Earth in the past. Other possible surface constituents include iron-rich clay minerals cronstedtite and carbonate minerals dolomite and siderite , which are common minerals in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Assuming the presence of sufficient antifreeze such as ammonia , the water ice would become unstable at this temperature. Therefore, it is possible that Ceres may have a tenuous atmosphere caused by outgassing from water ice on the surface.

However, it was not until early that several localized mid-latitude sources of water vapor were detected on Ceres. Possible mechanisms for the vapor release include sublimation from exposed surface ice as with comets , cryovolcanic eruptions resulting from internal heat, and subsurface pressurization.

The limited amount of data thus far suggests that the vaporization is more likely caused by sublimation from exposure to the Sun. As with the moons of Jupiter and Saturn , terraforming Ceres would first require that the surface temperature be raised in order to sublimate its icy outer layer. This could be done by using orbital mirrors to focus sunlight onto the surface, by detonating thermonuclear devices on the surface, or colliding small asteroids harvested from the Main Belt onto the surface.

The orbital mirrors would once again come into play here, where they would be used to trigger photolysis and transform the water vapor into hydrogen and oxygen gas. While the hydrogen gas would be lost to space, the oxygen would remain closer to the surface. Ammonia could also be harvested locally, since Ceres is believed to have plentiful deposits of ammonia-rich clay soils.

The end result would be an ocean world with seas that are km in depth. Within this shell, Ceres temperature could be increased, UV lights would convert water vapor to oxygen gas, ammonia could be converted to nitrogen, and other elements could be added as needed.

Using water harvested from the surface, this land could be irrigated, oxygen gas could be processed, and nitrogen could be pumped in to act as a buffer gas. The benefits of colonizing and para terraforming Ceres are numerous. For instance, it would take comparatively less energy to sublimate the surface than with the moons of Jupiter or Saturn.

Also, Ceres appears from all accounts to be rich in resources, which include water ices and ammonia, and has a surface that is equivalent in total land area to Argentina. This level of energy is high enough that solar-power facilities could run on its surface. And being the largest body in the asteroid belt, Ceres could become the main base and transport hub for future asteroid mining infrastructure, allowing mineral resources to be transported to Mars, the Moon, and Earth.

Its small escape velocity, combined with large amounts of water ice, means that it also could process rocket fuel, water and oxygen gas on site for ships going through and beyond the Asteroid Belt.

Despite the benefits of a colonized or transformed Ceres, there are also numerous challenges that would need to be addressed first.

As always, they can be broken down into the following categories — Distance, Resources and Infrastructure, Hazards and Sustainability. For starters, Ceres and Earth are on average approximately ,, km apart, which is 1. Hence, any crewed mission to Ceres — which would involve the transport of both colonists, construction materials, and robotic workers — would take a considerable amount of time and involve a large expenditure in fuel.

To put it in perspective, missions to Mars have taken anywhere from to over days, depending on how much fuel was expended. Since Ceres is roughly twice that distance, we can safely say that it would take a minimum of a year for a spacecraft to get there. However, since these spacecraft would likely be several orders of magnitude heavier than anything previously flown to Mars — i.

And while NASA currently has plans on the table to build laser-sail spacecraft that could make it Mars in three days times , these plans are not practical as far as colonization or terraforming are concerned. And while certainly feasible, no such drive systems exist at this time. These could be harvested from the Asteroid Belt, but the process would be time-consuming, expensive, and require a large fleet of haulers and robotic miners.

There would also need to be a string of bases between Earth and the Asteroid Belt in order to refuel and resupply these missions — i. In terms of hazards, Ceres is not known to have a magnetic field, and would therefore not be shielded from cosmic rays or other forms of radiation. This would necessitate that any colonies on the surface either have significant radiation shielding, or that an orbital shield be put in place to deflect a significant amount of the radiation the planet receives.

This latter idea further illustrates the problem of resource expenditure. The extensive system of craters on Ceres attests to the fact that impactors would be a problem, requiring that they be monitored and redirected away from the planet.

The surface gravity on Ceres is also quite low, being roughly 2. This would raise the issue of the long-term effects of near-weightlessness on the human body, which like exposure to zero-g environments would most likely involve loss of muscle mass, bone density, and damage to vital organs.

In terms of sustainability, terraforming Ceres presents a major problem. Under the circumstances, it seems like it would make more sense to colonize or paraterraform Ceres than to subject it to full terraforming. However, any such venture would have to wait upon the creation of a Lunar base, a settlement on Mars, and the development of more advanced propulsion technology.

It was also require the creation of a fleet of deep-space ships and an army of construction and mining robots. However, if and when such a colony were created, the resources of the Asteroid Belt would be at our disposal. Humanity would effectively enter an age of post-scarcity, and would be in a position to mount missions deeper into the Solar System which could include colonizing the Jovian and Cronian systems, and maybe even the Trans-Neptunian region.

Genesis, third planet of the star system 59 Virgo, can be found Although it's expected to have a shorter life-span than Earth's sun, it still has several billion years to go.

No large moon like Earth's orbits Genesis, but it possesses an asteroid-like belt of more than moonlets orbiting between ten and twenty thousand kilometers from its surface. Most of these satellites have an irregular shape and tumble slowly in their orbits. Rather than focusing on Murdoch's personality, we should make sure no one has a media empire that could be used in this way. I agree with the ACLU that the proposed Maryland bill could be adequate, if drivers really implement it as intended.

This even though its oil is especially caustic and likely to leak. And one researcher says he has received personal death threats. The words in the law don't actually say that the CDC can't fund such research. That interpretation of them is rather strained — but that strained interpretation is the one government officials follow. I am sure there is a systematic reason for that, that it is not chance or a quirk, but I don't know what it is. Here's more on how the NRA has made US agencies bend over backwards not to fund research into the social effects of firearms.

This is a pro-terrorist measure; the biggest terrorists in Colombia are the paramilitaries, which are connected with the state. Cut Pentagon, not benefits US citizens: That amounts to around 40 to 50 million Americans, depending on the average size of the households that have this problem.

I can't imagine even wanting to do such brutality even to politicians that support torture. Copyright law needs to be changed to make this unambiguously legal. But in the mean time, that a law gives someone the possibility of doing wrong like this is no excuse for actually doing it.

Shame on you, Kraftwerk! However, another man was fined for doing so. I do not agree with the views stated in these protests. Most of those soldiers died in World War I, fighting for a good cause even though incompetent generals wasted their lives, and in World War II, fighting for a good cause again. Some died fighting an unjust war in Iraq for B'liar and Bush, and there have been other unjust wars too; but criticizing those wars does not require expressing contempt for the loss that their families feel.

Whether we agree with their views or not, we must defend their right to state their views. People have a right to protest anything and mock any position. Arranging for this man to meet some soldiers may have been a good idea, but he should not have had to fear prosecution. Such floods have happened repeatedly this year. Global heating is directly responsible for the tendency to have lots of rain there. The author concludes that this part of the banking business is so corrupt that there is no room in it for an honest man.

Two of the banksters face prosecution. Reject products made by slave labor Everyone: A 'Redistribution Machine' for the Wealthy. Oppose proposed cuts in Social Security US citizens: The Capitol Switchboard numbers are , and Meanwhile, the Freedom of the Press Foundation has been set up to provide a middleman to receive donations for journalistic activities that the powerful do not like.

Huckabee and Khamenei agree in blaming mass murder on a lack of religion. However, mass murder is enshrined in the Bible, which both of them say they venerate, and mass murder has often been carried out in the name of religion.

Use of some drugs, and alcohol, have a lot more to do with violence, and I suspect the connection is due more to prohibition than to the effects of the drugs.

It follows that the ban needs to be made somewhat broader. Meanwhile, a ban on large magazines might have applied directly. In most of the world, when they say "terrorist" you should read "dissidents". It's a shame that the US has set a bad example in regard to freedom of association. But when a big bank is guilty, it gets a fine it can easily pay, and no person gets punished. This war must be on drugs. Stop talks about cutting Social Security US citizens: Label produce grown in sewage sludge In the US: Ms Sultan refers to the case of Lars Hedegaard; he was convicted of the crime of saying, more or less, that Muslim men have no respect for women and often abuse young female relatives.

At least that's what he's accused of saying; I've only seen a summary, which Hedegaard says was written by the prosecutor and doesn't reflect his words. I don't know what Hedegaard really said, and I don't know whether he was right or wrong.

But that isn't the issue here. The Danish censorship law makes it a crime to criticize a religious group even if the criticism is valid. In a free country, you're allowed to make such a statement even if it is false. In Denmark, honest discussion of that question is forbidden a priori. This demonstrates how little freedom of speech exists in Denmark. Elisabeth Sabaditsch-Wolff was fined in Austria for calling the Qur'an "evil" and saying that "Muslims want war".

There is evil in lots of religions' holy books. But whether she was right is not the point. The point is that a free country does not prosecute people for political statements. We must defend everyone threatened by state or private violence for criticizing any religion or its adherents, either in theory or in practice. It might be appropriate to force them to walk around on the street on Saturday wearing signs saying "I said the world would end yesterday.

Even these huge fines will not end corruption in banks that believe they are "too big to fail". The banksters will only look for more subtle forms of corruption and hide their plans better. What is needed is to knock down the profitability and size of banks. As an Atheist curmudgeon, practiced at refusing to do things merely because "that's what everyone does", I am safe from all of them. The US banned flavored cigarettes with the exception of menthol, but on the basis of that exception, the WTO condemned it as a trade barrier.

Does anyone know how the US responded to that decision? The EU proposes to ban menthol flavoring too, perhaps in response to that decision. Ban assault weapons US citizens: Gun regulation to prevent massacres US citizens: Zero tolerance for slavery US citizens: For instance, Catholic are determined to punish teenagers with pregnancy. If the banksters commit a crime, will the thug feel paid to close his eyes to it? I don't believe such decisions should be made based on medical costs.

Inviting people to die to if they can't pay is what we see in the US, and now in Greece. However, these two policies would be good ones for other reasons. Requiring abortions of gravely deformed or incapacitated fetuses is ethical so that the people who are born won't gave to suffer with those deformities or handicaps. And anyone suffering from a painful or debilitating disease that can't be cured or made bearable even with the best of care deserves our help in escaping into death.

If a suffering person wants to escape, loving treatment means helping him escape. To force him to stay alive, to prolong his horrible suffering to avoid grief for ourselves, is selfish treatment. We can't see the climate cliff; we can only estimate where it is. Maybe we are lucky and it is a little further away. Or maybe it is even closer. Want to find out the hard way?

The 'fiscal cliff' is a myth, so don't attack us in the name of avoiding it. The death rate due to pollution is growing rapidly there due to a big increase in cars. Since the population of the regions in question is on the order of 3 billion, and around 50 million of them die per year rough estimate , this is not a large fraction of all deaths, but it is a significant fraction.

It is not credible that the US would really do so. But what if it did? Protecting torturers cannot be justified. Now Obama is prepared to compromise part of the tax increase for the rich, an issue on which he could win completely by waiting two weeks.

Instagram later tried to reassure users that this didn't mean it would "own" their photos. That is a red herring — the issue is that photos in Instagram will be used in advertisements whether the user likes it or not. The producers think people might just now perceive them in relation to real life violence, so they will wait a few weeks for Americans to mostly forget about it. I don't need to have a recent school shooting in mind to react to gruesome movie violence that way.

I always react that way. I found the violence in Pulp Fiction so disgusting that I won't watch anything by Tarantino.

I cite that film to argue against the idea that we should censor some works merely because we find them disgusting. No matter how disgusting a work might be, censorship is more so. Nonetheless, I can't understand why anyone wants to wallow in gruesome fictional events.

With gruesome real events, such as school shootings, or the bigger practice of torture carried out and facilitated by the US regime, there is the argument that we have a responsibility to face the facts so we can put an end to the practice.

No such argument applies to the fictional events imagined by Tarantino. Note how Israeli fanatics refer to the Mavi Marmara, an unarmed ship carrying relief supplies whose personnel were killed by Israeli soldiers , as a "terror attack".

This blackwhiting exemplifies the distorted way they view all the pertinent facts. When a law says "terrorism", understand "journalism" or "dissent". Meanwhile, Greeks who are ill can die from austerity. Some who will die from untreated cancer may still be fit enough to attack the politicians and banksters who have killed them. He pulls the rug out from under his feet at the end, by saying that Facebook is a "great site", and judging it and others in terms of the "value" they "give", and accepting the idea that maximizing profit should decide how the Internet works.

However, since I don't accept those points, I don't pull the rug out from under the text up to that point. Tax financial transactions US citizens: Safety and security measures for US nuclear weapons labs US citizens: One thug was arrested for unauthorized release of "information".

That is a rather vague description; what was this "information"? Was it personal information about a member of the public, or was it information about wrongdoing by thugs?

Ethically, that makes a crucial difference. No one would do this except to commit suicide. There is no way to prove what really happened, because the thugs stole witnesses' cameras and deleted photos. But nobody who knew the victim recognized the toy gun. The story so fishy, on so many levels, that it would be a candidate for the Thugs ' Tallest Tale Prize.

The US also uses prisoners as slave labor making products to sell to the public, paying them a pittance , and puts a larger fraction of its population in prison than China does.

Is cutting their income the way to reduce medical care costs? When cutting income, I suggest we start with the rich, rather than doctors. This puts many species of animals in danger. Human activity is to blame for this in many ways, including via global heating, which causes worse forest fires and spread of pests.

Senators are pushing to reinstate it. National conversation about gun control US citizens: Gun control does not have to mean that most people would be banned from having any sort of gun. Other practices that may have contributed to the number of gun killings in the US.

This is a surrender to the short termist attitude of fishing businesses. He reported the abuses privately at the time, but the thug commanders ignored them. I suppose the government had told them to break the strike, and never mind how. At this rate, in a decade they will be effectively extinct. Can elephants survive in the wild without tusks?

The study says that this amounts to almost 1. Many of them live on the street. Thanks to Clinton's welfare "reform", the state has mostly abandoned them. And they have no chance of getting the IDs that Republicans want to demand to let them vote.

Singing about Killing People v. The statement that the US "embraces and props up the world's most repressive tyrants" is perhaps too strong. The US embraces and props up some of the world's most repressive tyrants.

However the larger conclusions are unaffected by this correction. The thugs accused her of inventing the story, and prosecuted her for stealing the money. They did not bother to check her fingernails for the rapist's DNA. Even if they could not have identified the rapist, they could have determined there was tissue that came from a male. I am glad that she won a large settlement, since the false accusation caused her to lose her job. However, it is the city that will pay the settlement.

Unless individual thugs are punished for acts like this, they won't stop. Does anyone know whether the shooter used an assault rifle of the sort that was prohibited for a while? The US also declares many protests illegal and arrests their leaders. End warrantless wiretapping program US citizens: Anyone who thinks he could escape the end of the world by moving to a particular spot in it might be dumb enough to believe that someone years ago could forecast a non-periodic event today.

Chavez has some bad policies, such as arbitrarily blocking some candidates from running for office, and imposing surveillance over all purchases in stores. Corruption is high, but that was true before Chavez.

However, I've never seen anyone accuse Chavez of launching wars of aggression, holding people in prison for years without charges, or torture. It's the US that needs regime change. It has committed large atrocities, such as forcing all inhabitants of Nepalese origin into exile. The Wikipedia page on Bhutan gives more information. This could once again lead to rising hatred for them. Limiting location tracking by companies is a good idea, but it won't address the principal threat to our freedom: I guess that meant, "limited by what donors give".

Cut US oil use in half US citizens: The Union of Concerned Scientists presents a plan for how to do this. Pledge to hold rogue Democrats accountable US citizens: Protection for some wilderness areas US citizens: It would be great to get rid of Assad's oppression, if the replacement is not Islamist oppression.

I presume that the points in the article are accurate, but isn't this time scale too slow? The journalists were accused of documenting human rights abuses — as if that were wrong. Compare this with the attacks and sabotage of journalism used by thugs against Occupy , and the attempts to to shut down Wikileaks ; what we see is a systematic pattern of repression against those who try to report on the evil actions of the state.

This on top of a one-sided propaganda view of the conflicts that the US is involved in, conflicts which the US has most often been the perpetrator of violence. It is, in effect, a US government propaganda film. Global heating makes both floods and droughts more likely, so we're going to see much worse in 10 years.

It is not clear to me what practical effect this treaty would have, since many governments already surveil, censor and block the Internet. The ITU executive acted deceptively towards the national delegations and violated previous promises. Such rigged negotiations have been reported from global negotiations before, but then they were rigged by the US and other wealthy countries. I wonder why this time the manipulation was done to cater to the other countries.

They don't care whether there is any rationality in what they say. Here are the details of the twisting. In addition to his arguments, there is the issue of imprisonment without trial. A tax is a smooth kind of limit. Call attention to climate cliff US citizens: Also sign this petition.

They say that the thugs just wanted to claim they had caught the perpetrator and made no attempt to find the real rapist. The article discusses the flaws of Occupy Wall Street as well as its virtues. It also has an interesting analysis of the mentality of thugs and its causes. It is prima facie evidence to convict the government of a crime against democracy.

The article's unsupported accusation that Ecuador violates human rights is bogus, though surely there is corruption there, as elsewhere. I am more frightened about the use of this technology by the US. This will make it harder for the Obama regime to get the cooperation of governments in Europe to hand over people for torture by the US. But the US government is still determined to cover up its torture. A US judge approved the plan to censor statements by defendants in Guantanamo kangaroo courts about how they were tortured.

These " military tribunals " are fundamentally unjust for many reasons. These trials are just for show, since even if a prisoner were found not guilty, he would suffer life imprisonment anyway. The only real significance of these trials is to make the US more orwellian.

Will these precautions prevent poisoning of water supplies? Using fracked gas would cost the UK more than renewable energy. And even if it produces less CO 2 than coal, it is a lot more CO 2 than renewable energy. This attitude towards our rights is one of the reasons I did not vote for Obama. The term "smuggling" is hardly applicable. End campaign funds from student loan system US citizens: The pesticide can build up in the soil over a period of years, and kill bees that nest in soil.

I have no sympathy for the minority in Ulster that wants to detach Ulster from the UK and add it to the Irish Republic, but they are guilty of lots of violence too, but that doesn't justify this. Stop the use of methyl bromide US citizens: Jobs not Wars US citizens: Kagame is also accused of rigging elections in Rwanda itself. The right tool for the job is deficit spending, but right-wing deficit cutters have blocked that since , so a less effective tool is being used instead.

Perhaps this provides a glimmer of hope that he will do the right thing in December: But I am reluctant to expect anything good from Obama. You can even subscribe anonymously. Most stay put and pay. It is interesting to contrast this with the War on Drugs. At the level of production and transportation, they are very similar. However, there is a major difference at the consumption end. The War on Drugs attacks users "to protect them", and both retail sellers and users are often imprisoned.

Thus, legalization of use and providing some legal way for addicts to get drugs eliminates most of the problem. In the case of poaching, the problem is extinction. The users are not being prosecuted, which is ok since the drugs experience suggests that would not help anyway. Another difference is that drugs really do something for the user. Never mind whether what they do is desirable, a question on which people disagree. Elephant tusk and rhino horn have no effect at all; the users are being gypped.

A fake substitute would do them just as much good. Wetlands conservation US citizens: It was meant as collective punishment, not defense, and Israel's statements effectively admit this. Hamas's missiles fail these criteria too, but Israel's crimes must take priority, both because they do far more harm and because it was Israel that decided to have a war by assassinating the Hamas military leader as he was about to agree to a truce.

Israel and Hamas both committed war crimes, and both say they are ready to commit more, but the Israeli war crimes are central to the problem. Israel keeps changing its explanation for bombing the al-Dalou family home, but none of the justifications is valid. DNA evidence supports his innocence. It's possible she really was a Russian agent. It's also possible she was pressured into a false confession. But even if she was an intelligence agent, that is no excuse for killing a prisoner, and even less for demanding a ransom not to kill her.

Now that Obama has formally recognized a Syrian rebel sort-of-state, does he have leverage to stop this? Either he is ignoring the fact that most Internet publication occurs outside the UK, or he is assuming that the UK can impose its power on the whole world. But that is so small that it doesn't alter any of the conclusions here.

In effect, they are above the law, so they must be abolished. Support same-sex marriage US citizens: It might succeed in getting them to better grades, but it seems like a horrible price in freedom of spirit. Meanwhile, the goal is to get into college, but in the US today getting student loans is asking for a ball and chain for most of your life. The reason such a law could not be passed today, and the reason why a law to address agricultural runoff cannot be passed to day, is that business has taken control of our state.

The "tight budgets" of today are not the cause, but another result of the same underlying problem. Contrast this with the more recent government policies that allowed fracking to poison water supplies.

Canada's right-wing government is abolishing part of its protection for lakes and rivers , with the exception of about of them surrounded mostly by right-wingers. Will those responsible be prosecuted? The first question that occurs to me is how much of that aid money will go to help needy people in Syria and how much will line these people's pockets.

Can the US do anything to increase the former? This reminds me of some of Machiavelli's advice for a prince who had conquered a city: I am not totally convinced yet, but this may be a good point, especially about "got". As for "download", since it is a very specific term for a technical practice, perhaps we should simply remind ourselves that it creates a local copy rather than moving one. End warrantless snooping on Americans US citizens: This scheme does not involve handing over all phone calls and emails immediately to the state, but having them stored by the phone company or ISP is almost as bad.

All of them can be accessed remotely over the Internet, so if their security is broken, others besides Big Brother would be able to listen to the passengers' conversations. Keep Congress ethics office open US citizens: This doesn't apply to me — I swore off obligatory gift giving holidays once I realized I didn't want gifts from others, I use clothing until it wears out, and the rest of what I buy is mostly food or books.

This is because people use commercial platforms to communicate and publish on the net. These companies should not be allowed to censor, any more than the phone company is allowed to disconnect your phone call because it does not like what you say. Now Guatemala is stuck in debt, and seems planning to do more of this.

Perhaps some action should be taken, for those general reasons. However, it should not be be unusually strict just because a freak accident occurred this time. Hold "rogue Democrats" accountable US citizens: Any law that bans expression of a view about history is directly contrary to human rights. What about the other people falsely convicted of murder or other crimes due to false confessions?

It is a good idea, but I'm afraid that there is little chance of this unless he can bring back the Soviet Union to point to as a bugbear. Meanwhile, many non-European countries could use debt reduction too. This would be as harmful and nasty as prohibition of alcohol was in the US. Some prostitutes are mistreated; if we want to help them, surely we can do it in a way that would cause less misery to others. For instance, victims of trafficking may not ask for help because they fear being stigmatized, especially if they come from Asia.

It would be useful to offer them a way out. Others don't know how to escape. Perhaps every prostitution-age female visitor entering Europe for the first time should receive a booklet written in her own language explaining what she should do if someone takes away her passport and forces her to do sex work. Or domestic work — that problem exists too. And this sheds more light on the issue.

People generally think it is wrong to enslave people and force them to do domestic work, but don't despise domestic workers and don't suggest a ban on domestic work. Why should sex work be different? Perhaps because of an irrational disgust.

I would not feel horrified if a relative of mine were a prostitute or the client of one, but apparently many people feel that way. That disgust may be the real impetus for this campaign. That doesn't necessarily mean the majority of Egyptians are on the side of secularism and human rights. But I hope they are. Paul Krugman explains the fallacy and why it is better to have no deal.

Americans often forget that most of the Sep 11 hijackers were Saudis. The Saudi regime surely didn't intend anyone to attack their friend Bush, or their ally the US; but after so much effort to promote violent religious extremism, such effect was not mere coincidence. However, the victims of this extremism are usually in Asia and Africa. Terrorism in the US is almost nonexistent.

The US fought to water this down. Protest for reversal of Corporations United decision US citizens: Protest on Jan 19 for a constitutional amendment to reverse the Corporations United decision written that way to say what it really was. If this "intelligence" were offered as a reason for a war of conquest, it would count for nothing. However, if the idea is to attack Assad's chemical weapons facilities if he starts using them, then the "intelligence" about preparations only sets the scene for a conditional threat.

In that case, it doesn't matter than much whether we can trust it. As for the general idea of intervention against Assad, I see nothing immoral about it, but avoiding a bad outcome may be tricky. Renew tax breaks for sustainable bioenergy US citizens: I am not sure this directly affects Leveson's proposals, since there are many intermediate possibilities between repressing criticism of the state and allowing them to break into people's phone answering machines.

I have not studied what he proposed. Meanwhile, he plans to legitimize arrests of civilians by the military, one of Mubarak's nasty tactics, as a result of which many protesters are in prison. Maybe Egypt needs to commit in advance to fixing its constitution with a Bill of Rights, as the US did. If he succeeds, it might protect him from going to jail. Thus, Hamas is about as impossible as a "partner for peace" as the Israeli state.

Meshaal's boasts about launching missiles at cities match Israel's boasts about bombing houses. Israel had a chance to make peace with a secular Palestinian state, but decided to grab land and water instead; this is the result. As for the Hamas plan to take more Israeli soldiers prisoner and exchange them for other prisoners, I don't see anything wrong in that particular tactic. Taking enemy soldiers prisoner for no reason except that they are enemy soldiers is legitimate.

Imprisoning civilians for no reason, as Israel does, is what's wrong. Thus Egypt demonstrates the lack of freedom of thought and speech.

The film might be lousy, stupid and insulting, but that is no excuse for criminal charges. Join protests on Monday In the US: Since they use cookies to do it, this appears to be another way for permanent cookies to be harmful. The US has imprisoned many Afghan teenagers, perhaps thousands, calling them combatants — even when they were captured unarmed in their own homes.

Fighting or capturing enemy combatants, properly speaking, is legitimate in war. However, the fact that some adult men are Taliban combatants does not justify pretending that any and all Afghan adult men who are killed were combatants. And if some Afghan children are combatants, that does not justify treating Afghan children arbitrarily as combatants. The UK also needs to have sit-ins to repeal the "aggravated trespass" law whose specific purpose was to ban many kinds of protests, including sit-ins.

It was wrong for Psy to call for killing the innocent relatives of Dubya's torturers, but the crimes of the Bush forces — the torture, and the wanton killing — went beyond mere words.

Nowadays, Obama protects those guilty of war crimes and aggressive war, from Dubya who has confessed to his role all the way down. Obama, not Psy, ought to be the first to apologize, but he must do more than that: Tell Applebee's not to cut workers' hours In the US: Student loans in the US have become an oppressive permanent ball and chain , so lots of Americans should not pay for college under these circumstances.

Although I feel sorry for that nurse, who must have felt horrible pain if it led her to suicide, I don't think the people who made the prank call were morally responsible for this unlikely consequence.

We must not let all of life be oppressed by fear of freak accidents and overreactions. Save Blair Mountain US citizens: It only means he is contemptible slime. This system might if they are describing it accurately make certain accidents happen less often, but that doesn't make undersea drilling safe — especially if they continue cutting corners on safety.

Global heating will tend to increase Arctic wildfires in the future, leading to more acceleration of melting and sea-level rise. This means the melting will be more than current models predict. Since Turkey welcomes fleeing Syrians, I am skeptical that they face a likelihood of abuse from the Turkish state, so I don't think many of them have a valid argument for asylum in the Schengen zone. I think they are would-be economic migrants. It's possible — I don't supposed he has scruples against this or anything.

However, he might be restrained by other considerations. Action against black carbon — that is, soot — is important for people's health , but as regards avoiding climate disaster CO 2 is more important than these short-term gases. Instead, the US pretends to have planned more CO 2 reductions than it really has. The idea is bogus because building a new habitat for wildlife is an uncertain activity, unlike building houses or streets.

Oppose use of Agent Orange corn US citizens: Perhaps not with drones. Amazingly, wages in China have risen to the point where this is profitable. Nonetheless, this will never provide full employment in the US. We must provide, as a society, for the people whose labor is not needed.

Cut subsidies to fossil fuel companies US citizens: This would fill a gap in the total surveillance of people's communications which they are setting up. The Israeli military said this was to assassinate a supposed visitor.

Israel considers a massive civilian death toll justified by the merest hint of a military target. By that logic, the presence of soldiers or military-related offices in Tel Aviv would justify launching missiles against Tel Aviv. She conceals her true feelings rather well, and even appears incredibly calm about the prospect of dying in the destruction of the Green Sun. She pesters Dave to play Sburb with her, at the same time building his already possibly ironically inflated ego with comments about how well known he is, causing Dave to confess to John that she lays it on thick.

It is possible that Rose's comments are a minor indulgence on her part and that she only wants to play Sburb with Dave because he was, at that point, the only person she knows who has the game. When speaking with John she evinces no particular liking towards Dave, even describing him as an insufferable prick , but she seems to be quite fond of Dave.

It has been speculated that her desire to play Sburb stems from Jade's prediction that it will allow her to resurrect her cat Jaspers , for whom she may have more affection than she cares to admit. Cynicism comes easily to Rose; she has difficulty admitting the sincerity of certain actions, even beyond the continual strife with her mother.

She regards John's birthday present and the accompanying note as a facetious sentimental gesture , although it is uncertain whether she believes this or if she's unwilling or unable to admit her appreciation of the gift.

Rose's personality of the straight-man is shown in a number of ways. In Act 6 , Rose steals an Alternian romance novel about quadrant vacillation. Trashy novels could be a guilty pleasure of hers, or she could simply have been fascinated by the concepts of alien romance and wanted to learn more. Rose is frightening in combat, taking down an Ogre with nothing but a pair of knitting needles to the eyes, and later blasting a hole in another Ogre's head with the Thorns of Oglogoth.

When she began to hear the voices of gods from the Furthest Ring , she acted mysteriously towards both her friends and the trolls. Her attempt to return to normal behavior and learn the true intentions of the gods resulted in her long-awaited descent into grimdarkness - surprisingly, she still seems to act only mildly more mysteriously, despite her inability to speak English, and physical alterations.

Rose originally believes her mother is not supportive of her, mocking her through Cruel Irony ; however, it is likely that in the same way that John is annoyed by his father's genuine displays of affection, Rose is annoyed by her mother's genuine interests and attempts at empathy.

It is unknown if this was enough to clue her in on Mom's genuine wizard interest. She was visibly shaken when her mother died at the hands of Jack Noir, stating that she had seen her as more of a sister and that she believed she was meant to achieve greater things.

Rose is very fond of her cat, Jaspers, and was very distressed when the cat disappeared and was found dead several days later. When Jaspers was revived as a sprite, the two share a very sweet, childlike relationship.

Jaspersprite often gently urged Rose to complete her quest, but was never forceful about it. Rose's interactions with Jaspersprite was one of her few truly tender interactions during her time in her original session.

Seeing as the two share an interest in sarcasm and one-upping the other, Rose and Dave's relationship is characterized by ironic dishonesty and banter.

Prior to the discovery of their blood relation, their interactions were colored in a somewhat flirtatious light. However their relationship has since transitioned into something akin to a sibling rivalry and appear to think of each other as a their respective twin. The two care greatly for one another -- Dave especially; becoming visibly upset at the idea of Rose attempting a suicide mission and insisting on accompanying her so she doesn't have to die alone.

Their relationship appears to be something of a universal constant, as post-scratch selves, and pre- and post-retcon selves all seem to interact similarly. Rose's relationship with Roxy appears to be very sisterly, and after finally meeting, they quickly bond over their respective maternal figures, past-alcoholism and mutual alt-motherhood.

They both find comfort in their similarities and clearly see their connection as means to connect and put aside their respective baggage towards their long-deceased mother-figures. Both of them, especially Roxy have been shown to be willing to put their lives on the line for the other, through their respective alternate selves. Rose finds Roxy and Dave's interactions to be absolutely fascinating.

Even before Rose and Kanaya were considered to be matesprits, the two shared a strong friendship forged by their extensive communication and playful contention earlier in the comic; Kanaya was one of the first definite patron trolls, and this relationship would only become stronger over time. When pressed by Meenah, Kanaya revealed that she and Rose are Maybe together. Supporting this theory, she asks Kanaya if she is doing anything later , and once you're finished escorting your guest around, would you like to do something?

Rose also would not let Dave join in on these plans, possibly because she wants to be alone with Kanaya, maybe making this a date. After ingesting some strong liquor, Rose went on a walk with Kanaya, and during that, they shared a kiss. Rose then proceded to fall down the stairs. When Rose was drunk and organizing cans for the mayor, Kanaya became angry, prompting Rose to ask if Kanaya was going to break up with her. The answer was an emphatic no, further supporting that Kanaya and Rose are together.

During the events of [S] Act 6 Act 6 Intermission 1 , when Rose and Terezi find themselves sitting on the surface of LOLAR nursing their respective hangovers, Rose expresses regret over the way that she had been acting toward Kanaya throughout her period of drunkenness and refers to Kanaya as her girlfriend for the first time in the comic:.

She fails and is stabbed. Before dying, Rose says to Roxy and John that she loved her. While Kanaya's emphatic refusal to break up with Rose even in her rage over Rose's drunkenness showed that their relationship possesses the fortitude necessary to survive great hardship and emotional strain, Rose's express of regret and mention of Kanaya as her girlfriend, even in sobriety maintains this with even greater certainty and puts to rest doubts that the entire relationship was made possible by Rose's drinking.

Rose and Kanaya's relationship happened in the old timeline as well as in the new timeline, which Kanaya explicitly confirms here. The two are seen reading a book on the quadrants together, with them both being annoyed when Vriska joins them, and Kanaya mentioned that Vriska likes to Flagrantly Spy On [Them] Sometimes , referring to the times Vriska saw Rose making no discerni8le effort whatsoever to disguise the fact that she's happy , which implies that Rose is happier than she generally is when she's with Kanaya.

John remarks they make a nice couple and that their relationship must be a strong relationship if it can survive both a three-year reboot and the sudden presence of Vriska.

Sometime after the kids and surviving trolls entered the new universe, Rose married Kanaya, and subsequently helped her oversee the future propagation of the Troll race, helping her raise future generations of young trolls. This is largely due to how the sprite's obvious similarity to herself and how the sprite's behavior reflects on her. Even when Jasprose was merely Rosesprite, Rose found the prototyping of pre-retcon self to be absolutely absurd and nonsensical through the lens of her seering abilities, sending Rose into a fit.

This view on her former self may reflect on the Alpha Rose. John and Rose share a friendly, often very playful relationship.

Although Karkat had insisted that the two were destined to marry, their relationship seems have remained, by and large, platonic. John considers Rose to be very intelligent and deeply mysterious. Rose and Jade share a friendship similar to John, but appear to interact less regularly. Jade had the unfortunate responsibility of informing Rose of her mother's death. Despite Rose's spiraling emotions, she admitted that Jade was honestly doing a very good job of comforting her.

Vriska and Rose don't appear to have any significant relationship, as Vriska considered Rose to be very unapproachable and makes an effort to avoid interacting with her. After the retcon, Vriska is present on the 3 year journey and is largely responsible for getting Rose to quit drinking. Rose considers Vriska to be a absolute bitch, albeit a necessary one. Eridan attempted to start a black romance with Rose, and made several unsuccessful attempts at wooing her. Eridan callously states that Rose's magic is fake and tells her to get off her high skyhorse.

He also erronously believed that Rose was a highblood. Rose merely responded by exploding Eridan's computer. Rose had also unsuccessfully attempted at acting as auspitice for Terezi and Gamzee's black romance. Post-retcon, the two appear to interact even less, due to Terezi generally oribiting Vriska.

Terezi later admits to Vriska that she is very fond of all in the kids, Rose included and finds herself to be somewhat jealous at how they all seem to complete each other. Prior to the retcon, Rose appears to be on good terms with Gamzee, as he reveals his blackrom with Terezi and she advises him to go back into hiding to avoid Kanaya. Following the retcon, the two don't appear to have had any significant interactions whatsoever.

Rose appears to be generally fond of Nepeta, and teases the troll when she asks to talk to Jaspersprite. During her brief interaction with Aradia, Rose admitted to finding the troll to be actually interesting. After Aradia reaches godtier, the two don't appear to have any significant relationship, but appear to get along, at least. Sign In Don't have an account? For the post-scratch version of this character, see Rose Lalonde post-scratch.

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Jul 20,  · Path of Exile is a free online-only action RPG under development by Grinding Gear Games in New Zealand. Poseidus ist ein Stufe 92 Selten NPC. Dieser NPC befindet sich in Schimmernde Weiten. In der NPCs Kategorie. Hinzugefügt in World of Warcraft: Cataclysm. Poseidus is a rare elite seahorse. When killed, he drops the unique epic mount Reins of Poseidus. Poseidus is a level 92 Rare NPC. In the NPCs category.